The remarkable performance of Convolutional Neural Networks on image segmentation tasks comes at the cost of a large amount of pixelwise annotated images that have to be segmented for training. In contrast, feature-based learning methods, such as the Random Forest, require little training data, but rarely reach the segmentation accuracy of CNNs. This work bridges the two approaches in a transfer learning setting. We show that a CNN can be trained to correct the errors of the Random Forest in the source domain and then be applied to correct such errors in the target domain without retraining, as the domain shift between the Random Forest predictions is much smaller than between the raw data. By leveraging a few brushstrokes as annotations in the target domain, the method can deliver segmentations that are sufficiently accurate to act as pseudo-labels for target-domain CNN training. We demonstrate the performance of the method on several datasets with the challenging tasks of mitochondria, membrane and nuclear segmentation. It yields excellent performance compared to microscopy domain adaptation baselines, especially when a significant domain shift is involved.